Across the region formed the traditional division between "north" and "south", "barbarians" and the Cultural Center - Middle Kingdom, a position which is both in terms of neighboring and more distant nations was to consider them as vassals, and trade and embassy ties - as a tributary. This view did not reflect the real relationship.
An example of the Liao Empire shows the division into nomadic "north" and agricultural "south" in accordance with the natural economic zones within a single state entity. In the Liao Empire itself entered the Khitan and conquered their agricultural and nomadic peoples with different levels of socio-economic and cultural development. All of them have made some contribution to the addition of lyaosskoy state culture. In the metal products are felt Tang tradition of art in ceramics - Fo-hai and Han, unmistakable contact with the East Turkistan. The struggle for Liao southern and south-western borders has been associated primarily with the possession of the Great Silk Road. Formed in 960 central Sung state was separated from the north-west of the Central Asian region, but the Khitan acted as intermediaries, whereas the Uighurs during his rise in the middle of the VIII - the middle of the IX centuries. blocked the traditional trade routes and the Kirghiz discontinued their relationship with the Middle Empire.